Panchanga
 

Basics of Madhwa Calendar (Panchanga)

There are two systems of the Madhwa Hindu Calendar, Souramana and Chandramana. Souramana is the solar calendar and Chandramana is lunar calendar.While the Sivalli Madhavas follow the Souramana sampradaya the other madhwa groups, (the desastha Madhwa Community and the Gauda-Sarasvata Madhwa Community adhere to the Chandramana Calendar. However Sode Matha alone, among the Tuluva Mathas observe both sampradayas of Hindu Calendar and was introduced during the period of Sri Vadhiraja Theertharu.


Like the Western calendar, the Hindu Calendar is also divided into twelve masas (months) which are as follows:

Masas   (Months)

Zodical (Hindu)

Zodical (Western)

Season

Western Months

Chaitra

Meena

Pisces

Vasantha

March-April

Vaishaka

Mhesha

Aries

Vasantha

April-May

Jyestha

Rishabha

Taurus

Grisma

May-June

Asadha

Mithuna

Gemini

Grisma

June-July

Sravana

Kataka

Cancer

Varsa

July-August

Bhadrapada

Simha

Leo

Varsa

August-September

Asvayuja

Kanya

Virgo

Sarat

September-October

Kartika

Tula

Libra

Sarat

October-November

Margasirsa

Vrichika

Scorpio

Hemanta

November-December

Pausya

Dhanu

Saggittarius

Hemanta

December-January

Magha

Makara

Capricorn

Sisira

January-February

Phalguna

Kumba

Aquarius

Sisira

February-March

 

Every Masa is divided into two equal pakshas (fifteen days) – Suddha and Bahuja

The Suddha paksha (a.k.a sukla paksha) or the bright half is that half of the Hindu month from the new moon day to the full moon day.


The Bahuja paksha (a.k.a Krishna paksha) or the dark half is that half of the month is from the full moon day to the new moon day.


The fifteen days of each paksha as follows and they are collectively called as “Thithis”


Prathama; Dvithiya; Thrithiya; Chaturthi; Panchami; Sasti; Saptami; Ashtami; Navami; Dasami; Ekadishi; Dvadishi; Trayodhishi; Chaturdashi, Pournima (full moon day) and Amavasya (new moon day)


All dates in traditional Hindu Calendar circle are expressed by the indication of  masa(month), paksha (half) and thithi (day). 

 

Hindu Calendar also has only seven days in a week which is known as “Saptaha”.


A year is called “Samvastara” and is divided into two halves. The period from Margasirsa through the month of Sravana is called Uttarayana Punyakala and the period from the month of Sravana through the month of Margasirsa is called Dakshinayana Punyakala.


There are sixty samvatsaras or cyclic years which keep rotating one every sixty years.

 

 

                                                                     
 
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